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List of Abbreviations

A = Anguttara Nikaya, 5 vols. (P.T.S.).

AA. = Manorathapūranī, Anguttara Commentary, 2 vols. (S.H.B.).

AbhS. = Abhidhammatthasangaha (P.T.S. Journal, 1884).

Anāgat. = Anāgatavamsa (P.T.S. Journal, 1886).

Ap. = Apadāna, 2 vols. (P.T.S.).

ApA. = Apadāna Commentary (S.H.B.).

AvS. = Avadāna Sataka, ed. Speyer (Bibl. Buddhica).

Barua: History of Pre-Buddhist Indian Philosophy (Calcutta).

Beal: Romantic Legend of the Buddha (Kegan Paul).

Beal: Buddhist Records of the Western World (Kegan Paul).

Bode: The Pāḷi Literature of Burma (R.A.S.).

Brethren = Psalms of the Brethren, by Mrs. Rhys Davids (P.T.S.).

Bu. = Buddhavamsa (P.T.S.).

BuA. = Buddhavamsa Commentary (S.H.B.).

CAGI. = Cunningham’s Anct. Geography of India, ed. Majumdar (Calcutta).

CNid. = Culla-Niddesa (P.T.S.).

Codrington: Short History of Sri Lanka.

Compendium = Compendium of Philosophy (P.T.S.).

Cv. = Cūlavamsa, ed. Geiger, 2 vols. (P.T.S.).

Cv.Trs. = Cūlavamsa, translated by Geiger, 2 vols. (P.T.S.).

Cyp. = Cariyāpitaka (P.T.S.).

CypA. = Cariyāpitaka Commentary (S.H.B.).

D. = Digha Nikaya, 3 vols. (P.T.S.).

DA. = Sumangala Vilāsinī, 3 vols. (P.T.S.).

Dāth. = Dāthāvaṃsa (P.T.S. Journal, 1884).

DhA. = Dhammapadatthakathā, 5 vols. (P.T.S.).

DhS. = Dhammasangani (P.T.S.).

DhSA. = Atthasālinī (P.T.S.).

Dial. = Dialogues of the Buddha, 3 vols. (Oxford).

Dpv. = Dipavamsa, ed. Oldenberg (Williams and Norgate).

Dvy. = Divyāvadāna, ed. Cowell and Neill (Cambridge).

Ep. Zey. = Epigraphia Zeylanica (Oxford).

ERE. = Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics.

Geog. = Geography of Early Buddhism (B.C. Law)

Giles: Travels of Fa Hsien (Cambridge).

GS. = Gradual Sayings, 5 vols. (P.T.B.).

Gv. = Gandhavamsa (P.T.S. Journal, 1886).

I.H.Q. = Indian Historical Quarterly (Calcutta).

Ind. An. = Indian Antiquary.

Itv. = Itivuttaka (P.T.S.).

ItvA. = Itivuttaka Commentary (P.T.S.).

J. = Jātaka, ed. Fausboll, 5 vols.

JA. = Journal Asiatique.

J.P.T.S. = Journal of the Pali Text Society.

J.R.A.S. = Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society.

KhpA. = Khuddakapātha Commentary (P.T.S.).

KS. = Kindred Sayings, 5 vols. (P.T.S.).

Kvu. = Kathāvatthu (P.T.S.).

Lal. = Lalita Vistara, ed. S. Lefmann.

Law: Ksatriya Clans in Buddhist India.

Law: Geography of Early Buddhism.

M. = Majjhima Nikaya, 3 vols. (P.T.S.).

MA. = Papañca Sūdanī, Majjhima Commentary, 2 vols. (Aluvihāa Series, Colombo).

Mbv. = Mahābodhivamsa (P.T.S.).

Mhv. = Mahāvamsa, ed. Geiger (P.T.S.).

Mhv. Trs. = Mahāvamsa Translation, by Geiger (P.T.S.).

Mil. = Milindapañha, ed. Trenckner (Williams and Norgate).

MNid. = Mahā Niddesa, 2 vols. (P.T.S.).

MNidA. = Mahā Niddesa Commentary (S.H.B.).

MT. = Mahāvamsa Tika (P.T.B.).

Mtu. = Mahāvastu, ed. Senart, 3 vols.

Netti. = Nettippakarana (P.T.S.).

NidA. See MNidA.

NPD. = P.T.S. Pali-English Dictionary.

PHAI. = Political History of Anct. India, by Chaudhuri, 2nd. ed. (Calcutta).

P.L.C. = The Pali Literature of Ceylon, by Malalasekera (R.A.S.).

PS. = Patisambhidāmagga, 2 vols. (P.T.S.).

PSA. = Patisambhidāmagga Commentary (S.H.B.).

P.T.S. means published by the Pali Text Society.

Pug. = Puggalapaññatti (P.T.S.).

Pv. = Petavatthu (P.T.S.).

PvA. = Petavatthu Commentary (P.T.S.).

Rockhill: Life of the Buddha (Kegan Paul).

S. = Saṃyutta Nikaya, 5 vols. (P.T.S.).

SA. = Sāratthappakāsinī, Saṃyutta Commentary.

SadS. = Saddhammasangaha (P.T.S. Journal, 1890).

Sās. = Sāsanavamsa (P.T.S.).

SHB. means published in the Simon Hewavitarne Bequest Series (Colombo).

Sisters = Psalms of the Sisters, by Mrs. Rhys Davids (P.T.S.).

Sp. = Samantapāsādikā, 4 vols. (P.T.B.).

SN. = Sutta Nipāta (P.T.S.).

SNA. = Suttanipāta Commentary, 2 vols. (P.T.S.).

Svd. = Sāsanavamsadipa, by Vimalasāra Thera (Colombo, 1929).

Thag. = Theragāthā (P.T.S.).

ThagA. = Theragāthā Commentary, 2 vols. (S.H.B.).

Thig. = Therigāthā (P.T.S.).

ThigA = Therīgāhā Commentary (P.T.S.).

Thomas: The Life of Buddha (Kegan Paul).

Ud. = Udāna (P.T.S.).

UdA. = Udāna Commentary (P.T.S.).

VibhA. = Sammoha-Vinodanī, Vibhanga Commentary (P.T.S.).

Vin. = Vinaya Pitaka, 5 vols., ed. Oldenberg (Williams and Norgate).

Vsm. = Visuddhimagga, 2 vols. (P.T.S.).

VT. = Vinaya Texts, trs. by Rhys Davids and Oldenberg, 3 vols. (Sacred Books of the East).

Vv. = Vimānavatthu (P.T.S.).

VvA. = Vimānavatthu Commentary (P.T.S.).

ZDMG. = Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenl

Latin Abbreviations

cf. = conferre, refer to

cp. = compare

loc.cit. = loco citato, in the place cited

q.v. = quod videre, regarding which see

sic. = sic erat scriptum = thus was it written

s.v. = sub verbo (under the word)

v.l. = varia lectio, variant reading

Glossary of Pāḷi Terms

Adhipāda = Viceroy

Anāgāmi = A Non-returner, one who has attained the third path by destroying all lust and anger.

Arahant = One who has attained the fourth path, and the final goal of Buddhism, by destroying all mental defilements.

Kesadhātu = Guardian of the hair relic.

Pāṭimokkha = Monastic rules of discipline recited by monks and nuns on every uposatha. The Vinaya Piṭaka includes many thousands of other rules.

Sakadagāmi = A Once-returner, one who has attained the second path by weakening lust and anger.

Sotāpanna = A Stream-winner, one who has attained the first path by destroying personality view, sceptical doubt, and attachment to rites and ceremonies.

Yuvarāja = Prime Minister?

āsava = mental defilements, corruptions, outflows.

aṭṭhakathā = Commentary.

gāvuta = a quarter of a yojana, about two miles.

khiṇāsava = An Arahant who has destroyed the āsava.

kahāpaṇa = a metal coin of significant value.

koṭi = crore (10 million).

lakkha = lakh (100,000).

māsaka = a coin of lesser value.

padhānaghara = meditation hall, a place for striving.

pāsāda = multi-storeyed dwelling, or palace.

sāmaṇera = A novice, who observes Ten Precepts and 75 Training Rules, not the full training of the Pāṭimokkha.

sāmaṇerī = A novice nun.

sīmā = boundary demarcating the limits for the purpose of formal acts of the Saṅgha. Formal acts are only valid if all of the monks present consent to it.

seṭṭhi = millionaire, treasurer, banker.

tacapañcaka = meditation on bodily impurities. The first five of 32 — head hairs (kesa), body hairs (loma), nails (nakkha), teeth (danta), and skin (taca).

thera = An elder, a monk (bhikkhu) of ten Rains.

therī = An elder nun (bhikkhuṇī) of ten Rains.

ṭīkā = Subcommentary.

uposatha = Sabbath days of the Full-moon and New-moon when the monks and nuns assemble to confess offences and recite the Pāṭimokkha rules. Lay Buddhists may spend the day in meditation while observing eight precepts.

usabha = a furrow’s length, a furlong, 140 cubits.

yavapālaka = a grain watcher, a grass-cutter, or perhaps a miller, lit. a guardian of grain.

yojana = one league, about eight miles, a day’s journey on foot.