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© You may print any of these books for your own use. However, all rights are reserved. You may not use any of the site content on your own website, nor for commercial distribution. To publish the books, permission must be sought from the appropriate copyright owners. If you post an extract on a forum, post a link to the appropriate page. Please do not link directly to PDF, MP3, or ZIP files. (Updated on 20 October, 2022)

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Books by Ledi Sayādaw

#ABiographicalSketchManuals of Buddhism (24 pp) » PDF (374 K)

  1. 1880: A Manual of the Perfections (130 pp) » PDF (1.19 Mbytes) • Epub (252 K)
  2. 1886: Cow Dhamma (20 pp) » PDF (328 K) • Epub (151 K)
  3. 1886: A Talk on Intoxicants and Gambling (16 pp) » PDF (610 K) • Epub (128 K)
  4. 1894: A Manual of Profound Meaning (16 pp) » PDF (336 K) • Epub (129 K)
  5. 1899: A Manual of Nibbāna (94 pp) » PDF (930 K) • Epub (186 K)
  6. 1900: A Manual of the Excellent Man (160 pp) » PDF (1.19 Mbytes) • Epub (239 K)
  7. 1901: A Manual of the Dhamma (96 pp) » PDF (895 K) • Epub (212 K)
  8. 1901: A Manual of Nutriment (94 pp) » PDF (1.13 Mbytes) • Epub (190 K)
  9. 1901: A Manual of Not-self (78 pp) » PDF (1.02 Mbytes) • Epub (177 K)
  10. 1904: A Manual of Respiration (30 pp) » PDF (397 K) • Epub (152 K)
  11. 1904: A Manual of the Requisites of Enlightenment (88 pp) » PDF (1.41 Mbytes) • Epub (208 K)
  12. 1915: A Manual of Insight (64 pp) » PDF (666 K) • Epub (174 K)
  13. 19??: A Manual of Donation and Morality (42 pp) » PDF (613 K) • Epub (154 K)
  14. 19??: A Manual of the Path Factors (60 pp) » PDF (896 K) • Epub (180 K)
  15. 19??: A Manual of Religious Heritage (20 pp) » PDF (396 K) • Epub (133 K)
  16. 19??: A Guide to Good Conduct for Youths (42 pp) » PDF (602 K) • Epub (74.9 K)
  17. Unpublished Works

Commercial Publications

The Manuals of Dhamma

Available from »» Insight Books

The Venerable Ledi Sayādaw’s most important expositions on Dhamma:

Manual of Insight (Vipassanā Dīpanī)

Manual of Conditional Relations (Paṭṭhanuddesa Dīpanī)

Manual of Right Views (Vipassanā Dīpanī)

Manual of the Four Noble Truths (Catusaccā Dīpanī)

Manual of the Factors of Enlightenment (Bodhipakkhiya Dīpanī)

Manual of the Constituents of the Path (Maggaṅga Dīpanī)

Five Kinds of Light (Alin Kyan)

5 Questions on Kamma; Anattanisaṃsā  

The Manual of Insight

Wheel Publication No. 31/32  

Requisites of Enlightenment

Insight Books  

Buddhist Philosophy of Relations

Wheel Publication No 331/333

Manual of Mindfulness of Breathing

Wheel Publication No 431/432   

A Manual of the Excellent Man

Buddhist Publication Society  

Unpublished Works

Many years ago I was given a large number of translations of Ledi Sayādaw’s books by Mr James Patrick Stewart Ross — an American who travelled to Burma to collect translations for publication in English. Only a few of these (listed above) have been published on my website. Many others are still in OpenOffice format with only minor edits of Pāḷi words to Unicode. They can be found in this archive for those who are keen to read them.

Venerable Ledi Sayādaw

A Biographical Sketch

This revered monk was a prolific author who lived during the British occupation of Burma in the 19th century. The Sayādaw’s lay disciple, Saya Thet Gyi, was the teacher of U Ba Khin, a well-known Burmese meditation master. U Ba Khin was the teacher of Sri Goenka, a famous meditation teacher with an international meditation centre at »» Igatpuri in India, and branch centres throughout the world.

The Venerable Ledi Sayādaw was born in 1846 in northern Burma. He attended the monastery school, and ordained as a novice at fifteen, taking the name Ñāṇadhaja (banner of knowledge). His education included a study of the Abhidhammatthasaṅgaha, on which he later wrote a controversial commentary — the Paramattha Dīpanī — in which he corrected certain mistakes in the widely accepted commentary. His corrections were eventually accepted by the bhikkhus and his work became the standard reference.

At the age of twenty, on 20 April 1866, he took the higher ordination and continued his studies in Mandalay. There, an examination of twenty questions was set for two thousand students. Ñāṇadhaja was the only one to answer all the questions satisfactorily. His answers were published in 1880, as the Pāramī Dīpanī (Manual of Perfections).

In 1886, Venerable Ñāṇadhaja went into retreat in Ledi forest, just to the north of Monywa. After a while many bhikkhus started coming to learn meditation. The Ledi-tawya monastery was built, whence the Sayādaw became known as Ledi Sayādaw.

Though Ledi Sayādaw was based at the Ledi-tawya monastery, he travelled throughout Burma at times, teaching both meditation and scriptural courses. He was a rare bhikkhu who excelled in both the theory and practice of Dhamma. During these trips many of his books were written. For example, he wrote the Paṭiccasamuppāda Dīpanī in two days while travelling by boat from Mandalay to Prome.

The Venerable Ledi Sayādaw was the outstanding Buddhist figure of his age. All who have come into contact with the Dhamma in recent years owe a great debt of gratitude to this scholarly, saintly monk who was instrumental in re-enlivening the traditional practice of vipassanā, making it more accessible to both monks and lay people. His concise, clear and extensive writings served to clarify the experiential aspect of the Dhamma.