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Uttarāpaṭha

The northern division of Jambudīpa. Its boundaries are nowhere explicitly stated in Pāḷi literature. It has been suggested (See Law, Early Geography of Buddhism, pp.48 ff) that Uttarāpaṭha was originally the name of a great trade-route, the northern high road, which extended from Sāvatthi to Takkasilā in Gandhāra, and that it lent its name — as did the Dakkhiṇāpatha — to the region through which it passed. If this be so, the name would include practically the whole of Northern India, from Aṅga in the east to Gandhāra in the north-west, and from the Himavā in the north to the Viñjha in the south. According to the brahmanical tradition, as recorded in the Kāvyamīmāṃsā (p.93), the Uttarāpaṭha is to the west of Prithudaka (Pehoa, about fourteen miles west of Thāneswar).

The chief divisions included in this territory are mentioned in the Pāḷi literature as Kasmīra-Gandhāra and Kamboja. This region was famous from very early times for its horses and horse-dealers (See, e.g., Vin.iii.6; Sp.i.175), and horses were brought for sale from there to such cities as Bārāṇasī (J.ii.287).

In Uttarāpaṭha was Kaṃsabhoga, where, in the city of Asitañjana, King Mahākaṃsa reigned (J.iv.79). The Divyāvadana (p.470) mentions another city, Utpalavatī.

According to the Mahāvastu (iii.303), Ukkalā, the residence of Tapassu and Bhalluka, was in Uttarāpaṭha, as well as Takkasilā, the famous university (Mtu.ii.166).

There was regular trade between Sāvatthi and Uttarāpaṭha (PvA.100).

Aṅganika-Bhāradvāja had friends in Uttarāpaṭha (ThagA.i.339).

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