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Some details about Buddhist holy places are from indiatravel.com, which also gives distances from major cities to aid location. The original map, which I edited to remove roads, state boundaries, and railways, was released to the public by the Central Intelligence Agency.
The Sixteen Nations
These sixteen nations at the time of the Buddha are named in the Visākhā Sutta of the Uposatha Vagga, in the Book of the Eights.
Some information on this map may be inaccurate due to the difficulty of mixing information from various sources. I will be grateful to know of any serious errors or minor oversights so that I can gradually improve it for future editions.
The Four Holy Sites
The four holiest places for Buddhists are the sites where the four main events of the Buddha’s life took place: Lumbinī, where the bodhisatta was born; Bodhgaya, where he gained Enlightenment; Saranath, where he gave is first discourse; and Kusināra, where he attained parinibbāna.
The Ten Stūpas
So it came about that there were eight stūpas for the relics, a ninth for the urn, and a tenth for the ashes.
The Six Buddhist Councils
Click the Map to view a PDF version (189 Kbytes)