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Pulacceri

1. Pulacceri.– A park laid out by Parakkamabāhu I. Cv.lxxix.11.

2. Pulacceri.– A landing place in Sri Lanka where Māgha and Jayabāhu set up fortifications. Cv.lxxxiii.17.

Pulatthinagara (°pura). A capital of the Singhalese kings. It is first heard of in the reign of Aggabodhi III, who built in the town the Mahāpānadīpa-vihāra (Cv.xliv.122). However, it was probably an important centre even earlier, and Vijitapura, wrested from the Damiḷā by Duṭṭhagāmaṇī, was probably nearby (See Codrington, op.cit., 20). Sena I first made Pulatthipura the capital (Cv.l.9, 46, 85), though even before his time it seems to have been used as a royal residence — e.g., by Aggabodhi IV (Cv.xlvi.34), Aggabodhi VII (Ibid.,xlviii.74), and Udaya I (Ibid.,xlix.9, 18), who built a hospital there. Kassapa IV is also mentioned as building a hospital against an epidemic (Cv.lii.25).

Mahinda II built in the city the Dāmavihāra-pariveṇa and the Sannīratittha-vihāra (Cv.xlviii.134). Sena I reigned in Pulatthipura for twenty years and erected there several buildings, including the Senaggabodhi shrine near the Thusavāpī (Ibid.,l.73). The successors of Sena I found in Pulatthipura a certain amount of protection from the inroads of the Coḷā and the Pāndiyans; but in the time of Sena V the town fell into the hands of the Damilas, through the treachery of Sena’s mother and his commander-in-chief, Sena. However, Sena V recovered the city by making a treaty with his commander-in-chief (Ibid., liv.64, 68). About 1017 A.C. the Coḷā overran the country, captured Pulatthipura, and made the reigning king, Mahinda V, their prisoner. He died, after twelve years, as a prisoner in India (Ibid.,lv.22 ff). During this period many of the Hindu shrines in the city were erected.

For many years the Coḷā held the sovereignty of the city, though the Singhalese made several vain attempts to drive them out. The Coḷā named the city Jananāthapura and put down all rebellion with a strong hand. Finally, a young prince named Kitti, born about 1039 A.C., assumed the title of Vijayabāhu and determined to rescue Pulatthipura. His first attempts failed, partly owing to rebellion among his own people; but finally, civil war broke out in the Coḷa country itself, and thus, about 1070, he captured Pulatthipura after a great deal of fierce fighting both on sea and land. However, owing to dissensions among his subjects, it was only several years later that he was able to hold his coronation (Cv.lvii.66; lviii.22 ff; lix.6 ff). He renamed the city Vijayarājapura, and erected there many religious buildings, chief among which was the Temple of the Tooth Relic (Ibid.,lx.2 ff). It was not, however, until the time of Parakkamabāhu I that Palatthipura reached the pinnacle of its greatness. He enlarged it to the size of four quarters of a league in length and seven in width and called it Parakkamapura. The city had three suburbs — Rāvjavesībhujanga, Rājakulantaka, and Vijita — and fourteen gates. Parakkama adorned it with various parks, chief of which were the Nandanavana and the Dīpuyyāna, and with ponds and numerous buildings, both secular and religious (for details see chiefly Cv.lxxiii.1 ff; lxxviii.44 ff). Kittinissanka added a stone temple for the Tooth Relic (Ibid., lxxx.19). In the reign of Līlavatī, Lokissara captured the city and ruled there for nine months. He was ousted by the general Parakkama, and later Parakkamapaṇḍu ruled as king, until he was deposed about 1215 A.C. by Māgha of the Kaliṅga race, who, coming with a large host of Keralas and Malabars, captured the city and mercilessly plundered its possessions (Ibid., lxxxiii.15 ff). From this spoliation the city never completely recovered, and it gradually lost its importance, though Parakkamabāhu II, Vijayabāhu IV and Parakkamabāhu III made attempts to restore it to its original splendour. Ibid., lxxxvii.67; lxxxviii.28, 35, 89, 92, 120 f; lxxxix.1.

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