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Kassapa

1. See Kassapa Buddha

2. Kassapa Thera.– The son of an Udicca-brahmin of Sāvatthi, who died when Kassapa was still young. Having heard the Buddha teach at Jetavana, he entered the First Fruit of the Path and, with his mother’s leave, became a monk. Some time later, wishing to accompany the Buddha on a tour after the rains, he went to bid his mother farewell, and her admonition to him on that occasion helped him to win insight and become an Arahant (Thag.v.82).

In the time of Padumuttara Buddha he had been a brahmin versed in the Vedas. One day, seeing the Buddha and wishing to pay homage, he cast a handful of sumana-flowers into the air over the Buddha’s head, and the flowers formed a canopy in the sky. In later births he was twenty-five times king, under the name of Cinnamāla (v.l. Cittamāla). (ThagA.i.177 f ).

He is probably identical with Sereyyaka Thera of the Apadāna.

3. Kassapa.– A devaputta. He visited the Buddha late one night at Jetavana and uttered several stanzas, admonishing monks to train themselves in their tasks, laying particular stress on the cultivation of Jhāna (S.i.46).

Buddhaghosa says (SA.i.82) that Kassapa had heard the Buddha teach the Abhidhamma in Tāvatiṃsa. Having heard only a portion of the doctrine and not being sure of the admonition given by the Buddha to the monks regarding the practice of Jhāna-vibhaṅga, Kassapa thought he could supply the omission. The Buddha, knowing his capabilities, allowed him to give his views, and expressed his approval at the end of Kassapa’s speech.

4. Kassapa.– A sage (isi); one of the famous sages of yore, of whom ten are several times mentioned in the books (e.g., D.i.104, 238; M.ii.169, 200; A.iii.224; iv.61; J.vi.99) as having been brahmin sages, who composed and promulgated the mantras and whose compositions are chanted and repeated and rehearsed by the brahmins of the present day. For details see Aṭṭhaka.

5. Kassapa (called Kassapa-māṇava).– The Bodhisatta in the time of Piyadassī Buddha. He was a brahmin versed in the Vedas, and having heard the Buddha teach, built a monastery costing ten billion. J.i.38; Bu.xiv.9 f; BuA.176.

6. Kassapa.– Another name for Akitti (q.v.) J.iv.240, 241; see also Jātakamālā vii.13.

7. Kassapa.– A brahmin ascetic, the Bodhisatta, father of Nārada, whose story is given in the Cūḷanārada Jātaka (q.v.) J.iv.221 f.

8. Kassapa.– A brahmin ascetic, father of the Bodhisatta in the story of the Kassapamaṇḍiya Jātaka. J.iii.38.

9. Kassapa.– A great sage, the Bodhisatta, father of Isisiṅga (J.v.157, 159). The scholiast explains that Kassapa was the clan or family name.

10. Kassapa.– An ascetic, also called Nārada, who lived in a hermitage near Mt. Kosika in Himavā. He saw Padumuttara Buddha in the forest, invited him into the hermitage, provided a seat and asked for words of advice. He was a former birth of Ekāsanadāyaka Thera. Ap.ii.381.

11. Kassapa.– A millionaire, probably of Rājagaha, who built the Kassapakārāma, named after him. SA.ii.230.

12. Kassapa.– Son of Dhātusena by a morganatic marriage. He slew his father and became king of Sri Lanka as Kassapa I (478‑96 A.C.). Fearing the revenge of his brother Moggallāna, he erected the fortress at Sīhagiri and dwelt there. Later, repenting of his patricide, he did many meritorious deeds by way of amends (for details see Cv.xxxix.8 ff), chief of which was the restoration of the Issarasamaṇārāma, to which he added buildings named after his daughters, Bodhī and Uppalavaṇṇā. In a fight with his brother’s forces his army fled in disorder, and Kassapa cut his throat with a dagger. Cv.xxxviii.80 ff; xxxix.1 ff.

13. Kassapa.– Son of Upatissa III of Sri Lanka. He had sixteen companions as brave as himself and, with their help, several times repulsed the attacks of Silākāla, when the latter revolted against the king. He became known as irikassapa on account of his prowess. In the last campaign Silākāla was victorious, and Kassapa, with his parents and his loyal followers, fled to Merukandara, but they lost their way and were surrounded by Silākāla. When the royal elephant fell Kassapa cut his own throat. v.xli.8‑25.

14. Kassapa.– Younger brother of Aggabodhi III; he was made viceroy when Māna was killed Cv.xliv.123 f). When Aggabodhi had recovered the kingdom from the usurper Dāṭhopatissa, which he did only after various reverses in his fortunes, Kassapa abused his influence and plundered various sacred edifices to provide for his army (Cv.xliv.137 f). On Aggabodhi’s death in exile in Rohaṇa, Kassapa defeated Dāṭhopatissa, who claimed the throne, and became king in his place (Kassapa II. 641‑50). He did not, however, wear a crown, the regalia having probably been stolen. As king he repented of his former misdeeds and did various acts of merit (Cv.xliv.147 ff; xlv.1 ff). He paid special honour to Mahādhammakathī Thera of Nāgasālā and to the Thera of Atandhakāra.

His children all being young at the time of his death, he entrusted the government to his sister’s son, Māna (Cv.xlv.8). According to the chronicles, Mānavamma was the son of Kassapa (Cv.xlvii.2). He also had a son named Mana (Cv.lvii.4).

15. Kassapa (Kassapa III, 717‑24 A.C.).– A younger brother of Aggabodhi V (?); Kassapa’s younger brother was Mahinda I (Cv.xlviii.20‑26) and his son Aggabodhi (Cv.xlviii.32).

16. Kassapa.– One of the three younger brothers of Sena I, the others being Mahinda and Udaya (Cv.l.6). Kassapa was appointed Ādipāda and fought valiantly against the forces of the Paṇḍu king, who was then invading Sri Lanka, but, finding his efforts of no avail, he fled to Kondivāta (Cv.vv.25 ff). He was later killed at Pulatthipura by the orders of the Paṇḍu king (Cv.vv.46). He had four sons, the eldest of whom was named Sena (Cv.vv.47).

17. Kassapa.– Son of Kittaggabodhi, ruler of Rohaṇa. When his eldest brother was murdered by his paternal aunt, Kassapa fled to the court of King Sena I, but, later, with Sena’s help, he won his father’s inheritance (Cv.l.54 ff). He was probably killed by the Adipāda Kittaggabodhi. Cv.li.96; and Cv.Trs.i.157, n.2.

18. Kassapa.– Younger brother of Sena II and Udaya II. He was Mahādipāda or Yuvarāja under Udaya (Cv.li.91), and later became king as Kassapa IV. (896‑913 A.C.) (Cv.lii.1 ff). His daughter Sena married Kassapa V. (Cv.li.93)

19. Kassapa.– Son of Sena II. The king gave him a special share of his own revenues and a share of the extraordinary revenues of the island (Cv.li.18, 20). Two wives of his are mentioned: Saṅghā and Senā (Cv.li.18, 92). He became Yuvarāja under Kassapa IV and ruled over Dakkhiṇadesa (Cv.lii.1), and, at the death of the king, he became ruler of Sri Lanka as Kassapa V (probably 913‑23 A.C.) (Cv.lii.37 ff). He is sometimes referred to as the son of the twice-consecrated queen (dvayābhisekajāta), his mother being Saṅghā, daughter of Kittaggabodhi (1) and Devā. In inscriptions, Kassapa is referred to as Abhaya-Silāmegha-vaṇṇa (Cv.Trs.i.165, n.3). He was evidently a learned man, and a Sinhalese Commentary to the Dhammapadaṭṭhakathā is attributed to him (Edited by D. B. Jayatilaka, Colombo 1933). He had one wife, Vajirā (Cv.lii.62), a second, Devā (Cv.lii.64), and a third, Rājinī (Cv.lii.67). He had a son, Siddhattha, who died young, and another, who was given the title of Sakkasenāpati. The latter led an expedition to help the Paṇḍu king against the King of Coḷa, but he died of plague in Coḷa (Cv.lii.72‑8).

20. Kassapa.– Son of Sena V. (Cv.liv.69)

21. Kassapa.– Son of Mahinda V. (Cv.lv.10). When Mahinda was captured and taken away by the Coḷā, the people took charge of the young Kassapa and brought him up. When the boy was twelve years old the Coḷa king sent an army over to Sri Lanka to seize him; but this plan was frustrated by the official Kitti, of Makkhakudrūsa, and the minister Buddha, of Māragallaka (Cv.lv.24‑9). Kassapa ascended the throne as Vikkamabāhu, but refused to be crowned until he should have conquered the Damiḷā in his kingdom. While preparations were afoot towards this end, he died of a wind disease (vātaroga). He reigned twelve years (1029‑1041 A.C.). (Cv.lvi.1‑6; Cv.Trs.i.190, n.3). He is perhaps to be identified with the prince Kassapa who married Lokitā, cousin of Mahinda V, and by whom he had two sons, Moggallāna and Loka. Cv.lvii.28 f; Cv.Trs.i.195, n.3.

22. Kassapa.– Chief of the Kesadhātus (q.v.) For some time he carried on the government at Rohaṇa, where he defeated the Damiḷā. He refused to own allegiance to Kitti (later Vijayabāhu I), and after six months of rule in Khadiraṅgani, full of resentment that his services against the Damiḷā had not been recognised, he marched against Kitti and was slain in a battle near Kājaragāma. Cv.lvii.65‑75.

23. Kassapa.– A prince of Jambudīpa who, during the reign of Parakkamabāhu I of Sri Lanka, sent costly gifts to the king of Rāmañña; the Rāmañña king forbade the envoys to land and insulted them. This is mentioned as one of the acts which led Parakkamabāhu to send an expedition against Rāmañña. Cv.lxxvi.28 f.

24. Kassapa Thera.– According to the Gandhavaṃsa (p.61) he was the author of the Anāgatavaṃsa and also of the Mohavicchedanī, the Vimaticchedanī and the Buddhavaṃsa. This Buddhavaṃsa is evidently not the canonical work of the same name. The Sāsanavaṃsadīpa (Verse 1204, see also 1221) says that a Kassapa, an inhabitant of Coḷa, was the author of a Vimativinodanī. The Sāsanavaṃsa (p.33; see also P.L.C.160) calls this a Subcommentary on the Vinaya (Vinayaṭīkā) and the author an inhabitant of the Damiḷa country. The Mohavicchedanī is there described as a lakkhaṇagandha (a treatise on grammar?) and is ascribed to another Kassapa.

25. Kassapa.– A Kassapa Thera is mentioned in the Sāsanavaṃsa (p.50) as having been among those responsible for the establishment of the religion in Yonakarattha. He was an inhabitant of Majjhimadesa.

26. Kassapa.– The Sāsanavaṃsa (p.71) mentions a Kassapa Thera of Arimaddana, in the time of King Narapati. While on tour he reached a country called Pollaṅka, where the people grew very fond of him and where he became known as Pollaṅka Thera. Some time later he was crossing to Sri Lanka and the vessel in which he was refused to move. Lots were drawn, as it was necessary to discover who aboard the vessel was the sinner. The lot fell repeatedly on Kassapa, because, in a former life, he had harassed a dog in the water. He was accordingly thrown overboard, but was rescued by Sakka, in the form of a crocodile. The thera reached Yakkhadīpa (q.v.) and there, as a result of practising compassion, the blind yakkhas gained their sight. Kassapa went later to Sīhaladīpa, whence he returned home with relics and seeds of the Bodhi-tree and models of the Mahācetiya and Lohapāsāda.

27. Kassapa.– The name is sometimes used as a shortened form of Kassapagotta (q.v.) (e.g., J.vi.224, 225, etc., in reference to the Ājīvaka Guṇa). Nārada-tāpasa is also once addressed as Kassapa (J.vi.58).

28. Kassapa.– See also Acela-Kassapa, Uruvela°, Kumāra°, Gayā°, Kassapa Buddha, Nadī°, Nārada°, Pūraṇa°, Mahā° and Lomassa°.

Kassapa was evidently a well-known clan (gotta), e.g., MA.i.584) and people born in a family bearing that name were often addressed as Kassapa — e.g., Uruvela-Kassapa (AA.i.165) and, again, Nāgita Thera (D.i.151).

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