“The speaker of untruth goes to a woeful state, and also he who,
having done something, says, ‘I did not do it.’
Both after death become equal, men of base actions in the other world.”306
At that time the gain and honour lavished on the Buddha and his disciples was like the great flood at the confluence of five great rivers. The followers of other sects assembled and discussed what they could do to bring discredit to the Buddha, and regain the honour and gains they had lost since the arising of the Buddha in the world. They conspired with Sundarī, a beautiful female wanderer. Every evening, when the people were returning from Jetavana after listening to the Dhamma, she set out in the opposite direction wearing flowers and perfumes, saying that she was going to stay with the recluse Gotama in the perfumed chamber. In the morning, when the people were on their way to Jetavana to offer alms, she returned having spent the night in another place, saying that she had spent a wonderful night with the recluse Gotama. When this had gone on for a few days, and gossip was starting to spread among the non-believers, the followers of other sects hired some thugs and had Sundarī murdered and her body thrown away on the heap of flowers left by the perfumed chamber. Saying that she had disappeared, they found her and carried her body through the city telling the people that the Buddha’s disciples had had her murdered to cover up the recluse Gotama’s wrong doing. The non-believers started to abuse the monks, but the Buddha told them to be patient, and just to recite the above verse in reply.
The king sent his men into the city to investigate, and they overheard the thugs, who had become drunk, arguing about who had murdered Sundarī, and who deserved the most money. They arrested the thugs, and took them to the king’s court, where they confessed that they had been hired by the followers of other sects. The ascetics were punished for the crime of murder, and the gain and honour accorded to the Buddha and his disciples increased all the more.
“Many with a yellow robe on their necks are of evil disposition and uncontrolled.
Evil-doers on account of their evil deeds are born in a woeful state.”307
While descending from Vulture’s Peak, the Elder Moggallāna saw skeleton-like ghosts all on fire. When he smiled at this sight, the Elder Lakkhaṇa asked him why he smiled. He told him to ask again later, in the presence of the Buddha.
The Buddha confirmed that he had also seen these ghosts, and related how in the time of the Buddha Kassapa they had been corrupt monks, and were now still suffering the consequences of their evil deeds, reciting the above verse.
“Better to swallow a red-hot iron ball (which would consume one) like a flame of fire, than to be an immoral and uncontrolled person feeding on the alms offered by people.”308
This story is told in the Vinaya Piṭaka, regarding the fourth offence of defeat for making false claims regarding superhuman attainments. The monks dwelling on the banks of the river Vaggumudā in the country of the Vajjians, made false claims about each other’s attainments during a time of food shortage, in order to obtain more offerings. The devotees offered food to them, even though going hungry themselves. When the monks came to pay respects to the Buddha after the Rains Retreat, the Buddha inquired how they had fared for alms during the Rains, and the truth came out. Rebuking the monks severely for telling lies regarding superhuman attainments for the sake of their stomachs, the Buddha laid down the fourth rule of defeat, and uttered the above verse.
“Four misfortunes befall a careless man who commits adultery:
acquisition of demerit, disturbed sleep, thirdly blame, and fourthly a state of woe.”309
A nephew of Anāthapiṇḍika, who was a handsome youth, committed adultery as women were unable to resist his charms. Several times he was arrested, and taken before the king, but each time he was released in deference to his wealthy father. Finally the father took him to the Buddha and asked the Buddha to teach him the Dhamma. The Buddha admonished the young man on the evil consequences of adultery. On the conclusion of the above verse, Khema attain Stream-winning. In a previous life, he had made a wish to be attractive to women when honouring the shrine of the Buddha Kassapa. As a result, in this life he was irresistible to women.
“Just as kusa grass, wrongly grasped, cuts the hand,
even so the monkhood wrongly handled drags one to a woeful state.”311
A certain monk thoughtlessly broke of a single blade of grass. When he spoke about it to another monk to confess his offence, the other monk said it was of no consequence, and deliberately committed a wrong act by pulling up a whole clump of grass. When the Buddha was informed about it, he rebuked the stubborn monk, with the above verses.
“An evil deed is better not done: a misdeed torments one hereafter.
Better it is to do a good deed, after doing which one does not grieve.”314
A certain woman cut off the nose and ears of a maidservant with whom her husband had misconducted himself, and locked her in a store-room. To hide her misdeed, she said to her husband, “Let’s go to the monastery to listen to the Dhamma.” When relatives came to the house and discovered the maidservant, they released her, and while the husband and wife were listening to a sermon the maid-servant came there and related the whole incident to the assembly. The Buddha advised them all not to do any evil.
“Like a border city, guarded within and without, so guard yourself.
Do not let slip this opportunity, those who do grieve when reborn in a woeful state.”315
Some monks who spent the rains dependent for alms on a frontier city led a life of discomfort after the city was attacked by bandits, because the people were busy fortifying their city to protect themselves. When the monks reported the matter to the Buddha, he advised them to fortify their minds.
“Beings who are ashamed of what is not shameful,
and are not ashamed of what is shameful,
embrace wrong views and go to a woeful state.”316
Some monks remarked that the Nigaṇṭha were better than the Acelaka ascetics, as the former used a cloth in front that covered their private parts, while the latter went entirely naked. The Nigaṇṭha explained that they did so to keep dust out of their almsbowl. Hearing their discussion, the Buddha uttered the above verses. On the conclusion of the discourse many Nigaṇṭha asked for the going forth.
“Beings who imagine faults in the faultless, and perceive no fault in the faulty,
embrace wrong views and go to a woeful state.”318
“Beings knowing faults as faults and what is faultless as faultless,
embrace right views and go to a blissful state.”319
Some disciples who were non-believers, having seen their children playing with the children of believers, called their children into the house, admonished them not to pay respect to the recluse Gotama or his disciples, and made them swear an oath not to visit their monastery.
One day as they were playing with the children of the Buddha’s followers they felt thirsty. So the son of a lay follower was sent to get some water from the monastery. This child mentioned the matter to the Buddha who advised him to bring all the children to the monastery. After they had quenched their thirst the Buddha preached the Dhamma to them and they became his followers. On hearing about this the parents were at first displeased, but they were won round by the believing parents, came to the Buddha and also became his followers.