King of Kosala and contemporary of the Buddha. He was the son of Mahā Kosala, and was educated at Takkasilā where, among his companions, were the Licchavi Mahāli and the Malla prince Bandhula. On his return home his father was so pleased with his proficiency in the various arts that he forthwith made him king.¹ As ruler, Pasenadi gave himself wholeheartedly to his administrative duties ² and valued the companionship of wise and good men.³ Quite early in the Buddha’s ministry,⁴ Pasenadi became his follower and close friend, and his devotion to the Buddha lasted until his death.
However, Pasenadi’s conversion did not prevent him from extending his favour, with true Indian tolerance, to the members of other religious orders. Mention is even made of a great animal sacrifice that he once prepared, but which he abandoned on the advice of the Buddha, whom he sought at Mallikā’s suggestion.⁵ He frequently visited the Buddha and discussed various matters with him.⁶ The whole of the Third Saṃyutta (Kosala Saṃyutta), consisting of twenty-
Pasenadi’s chief consort was Mallikā,⁹ daughter of a garland maker. He loved her dearly and trusted her judgment in all things. When in difficulty he consulted her, realising that her wisdom was greater than his own.¹⁰ There is an account given of Pasenadi seeking a confession from her that she loved him more than she loved her own self (attā) as a confirmation of their mutual trust.¹¹ However, the queen was pious and saw into the reality of things, and declared that nothing was dearer to her than her own self. Piqued by this answer, Pasenadi sought the Buddha, who comforted him by explaining the true import of Mallikā’s words. On another occasion, Pasenadi expressed to the Buddha his disappointment that Mallikā should have borne him a daughter instead of a son; but the Buddha pointed out to him that there was much, after all, to be said for daughters.¹²
Mallikā predeceased Pasenadi.¹³ He had other wives, one of them being the sister of Bimbisāra,¹⁴ and another Ubbirī (q.v.) The Kaṇṇakatthala Sutta ¹⁵ mentions two others who were sisters: Somā and Sakulā.¹⁶
It is stated that Pasenadi wished to associate himself with the Buddha’s family so that their relationship might be even closer. For seven days he had given alms to the Buddha and one thousand monks, and on the seventh day he asked the Buddha to take his meals regularly at the palace with five hundred monks; but the Buddha refused the request and appointed Ānanda to take his place. Ānanda came daily with five hundred others, but the king was too busy to look after them, and the monks, feeling neglected, failed to come any more, only Ānanda keeping to his undertaking. When the king became aware of this he was greatly upset, and determined to win the confidence of the monks by marrying a kinswoman of the Buddha. He therefore sent messages to the Sakyan chiefs, who were his vassals, asking for the hand of one of their daughters. The Sākyā discussed the proposition in their Mote-
Pasenadi’s sister, Kosaladevī, was married to Bimbisāra. Mahākosala gave her a village in Kāsi as part of her dowry, for her bath money. When Ajātasattu killed Bimbisāra, Kosaladevī died of grief, and Pasenadi confiscated the Kāsi village, saying that no patricide should own a village that was his by right of inheritance. Angered at this, Ajātasattu declared war upon his aged uncle. At first, victory lay with Ajātasattu, but Pasenadi had spies who reported to him a plan of attack suggested by the Thera Dhanuggaha Tissa, in the course of a conversation with his colleague Mantidatta, and in the fourth campaign Pasenadi took Ajātasattu prisoner, and refused to release him until he renounced his claim to the throne. Upon his renunciation, Pasenadi not only gave him his daughter Vajirā in marriage, but conferred on her, as a wedding gift, the very village in dispute.¹⁹
Three years later, Viḍūḍabha revolted against his father. In this he was helped by the commander-
When Ajātasattu heard the news, he performed the funeral rites over the king’s body with great pomp. He wished to march at once against Viḍūḍabha, but desisted on the advice of his ministers.²⁰
Pasenadi had a sister, Sumanā, who was present at his first interview with the Buddha and decided to enter the Order, but she delayed doing so as she then had to nurse their aged grandmother. Pasenadi was very fond of his grandmother, and was filled with grief when she died in her one hundred and twentieth year. After her death, Sumanā became a nun and attained Arahantship.²¹ The old lady’s possessions were given over to the monks, the Buddha giving special permission for them to be accepted.²²
Among the king’s most valued possessions was the elephant Seta;²³ he had two other elephants, Bhadderaka (or Pāveyyaka) ²⁴ and Puṇḍarīka.²⁵ Mention is also made ²⁶ of a pet heron that lived in the palace and conveyed messages. Tradition says ²⁷ that Pasenadi had in his possession the octagonal gem that Sakka had given to Kusa. He valued it greatly, using it as his turban jewel, and was greatly upset when it was reported lost; it was, however, recovered with the help and advice of Ānanda. The Jātaka Commentary ²⁸ records that Pasenadi built a monastery in front of Jetavana. It was called the Rājakārāma, and the Buddha sometimes stayed there. Pasenadi’s chaplain, Aggidatta (q.v.) had originally been Mahākosala’s chaplain. Pasenadi therefore paid him great respect. This inconvenienced Aggidatta, and he gave his wealth to the poor and renounced the world.²⁹ Pasenadi’s minister, Santati (q.v.), who was once allowed to reign for a week in the king’s place as reward for having quelled a frontier dispute, gave his wealth to the poor and renounced the world like Aggidatta.³⁰ The king was always ready to pay honour to those who had won the praise of the Buddha, as in the case of Kāṇā,³¹ Cūḷa Ekasāṭaka ³² or Aṅgulimālā;³³ on the other hand, he did not hesitate to show his disapproval of those who disregarded the Buddha’s teaching — e.g., Upananda.³⁴
Pasenadi liked to be the foremost in gifts to the Buddha and his Order. This was why he held the incomparable alms-
Pasenadi seems to have enjoyed discussions on topics connected with the Dhamma. Reference has already been made to the Kosala Saṃyutta, which records several conversations which he held with the Buddha when visiting him in Sāvatthi; even when Pasenadi was engaged in affairs of state in other parts of the kingdom, he would visit the Buddha and engage him in conversation if he was anywhere in the neighbourhood. Two such conversations are recorded in the Dhammacetiya Sutta (q.v.) and the Kaṇṇakatthala Sutta (q.v.) If the Buddha was not available, he would seek a disciple. Thus the Bāhitika Sutta (q.v.) records a discussion between Pasenadi and Ānanda on the banks of the Aciravatī. Once when Pasenadi was in Toraṇavatthu, midway between Sāketa and Sāvatthi, he heard that Khemā Therī was there, and went at once to visit and talk to her.³⁶ Rhys Davids thinks ³⁷ that Pasenadi was evidently an official title ³⁸ and that the king’s personal name was Agnidatta. He bases this surmise on the fact that in the Divyāvadāna ³⁹ the king who gave Ukkaṭṭhā to Pokkharasāti is called Agnidatta, while in the Dīghanikāya ⁴⁰ he is called Pasenadi, and that Pasenadi is used, as a designation for several kings.⁴¹ The evidence is, however, insufficient for any definite conclusion to be drawn.
¹ DhA.i.338; for his genealogy see Beal: Records, ii.2, n3.
² E.g., S.i.74, 100; the Commentary (SA i.109 f ) adds that the king tried to put down bribery and corruption in his court, but his attempt does not appear to have been very successful.
³ Thus he showed his favour to Pokkharasāti and Caṅkī, by giving them, respectively, the villages of Ukkaṭṭhā and Opāsāda free of all taxes. It is said that his alms halls were always open to everyone desiring food or drink (Ud.ii.6). Even after becoming the Buddha’s follower, he did not omit to salute holy men of other persuasions (Ud.vi.2).
⁴ According to Tibetan sources, Pasenadi’s conversion was in the second year of the Buddha’s ministry (Rockhill, p.49). We find the king referring to the Buddha, at their first meeting, as being young in years (S.i.69). Their first meeting and conversation, which ended in Pasenadi’s declaring himself an adherent of the Buddha, are recorded in the Dahara Sutta (q.v.)
⁵ S.i.75; for details see the Mahāsupina and Lohakumbhī Jātaka. It is said (SA.i.111) that the king fell in love with a woman while riding round the city; on discovering that she was married, he ordered her husband to go, before sunset, and fetch clay and lilies from a pond one hundred leagues away. When the man had gone, the king ordered the gatekeepers to shut the gates early and not on any account to open them. The husband returned in the evening, and finding the gates shut, went to Jetavana, to seek protection from the king’s wrath. The king spent a sleepless night owing to his passion and had bad dreams. When the brahmins were consulted they advised a great animal sacrifice. The story is also found at DhA.ii.1 ﬀ, with several variations in detail.
⁶ It is said that he went three times a day to wait on the Buddha, sometimes with only a small bodyguard. Some robbers, knowing this, arranged an ambush in the Andhavana. However, the king discovered the plot, of which he made short work.
⁷ Pasenadi was extremely attached to the Buddha, and the books describe how, when he saw the Buddha, he bowed his head at the Buddha’s feet, covering them with kisses and stroking them (M.ii.120). The Chinese records say (Beal, xliv) that when the Buddha went to Tāvatiṃsa, Pasenadi made an image of the Buddha in sandalwood, to which he paid honour. He was very jealous of the Buddha’s reputation, and put down with a firm hand any attempt on the part of heretics to bring discredit on him — e.g., in the case of Sundarī-
⁸ S.i.81; DhA.iii.264 f; iv.6 f; the Saṃyuttanikāya Commentary (SA.i.136) states that the bowl out of which he ate (paribhogapāti) was the size of a cartwheel. Pasenadi was always conscious of his own dignity — e.g., the incident with Chattapāṇi (q.v.); but see Vin.iv.157 f, which probably refers to the same story.
¹⁰ E.g. in the incomparable alms-
¹⁴ DhA.i.385; Pasenadi’s relations with Bimbisāra were very cordial. Bimbisāra had five millionaires in his kingdom — Jotiya, Jaṭila, Meṇḍaka, Puṇṇaka and Kākavaliya — while Pasenadi had none. Pasenadi therefore visited Bimbisāra and asked for one to be transferred to him. Bimbisāra gave him Dhanañjaya, Meṇḍaka’s son, and Pasenadi settled him in Sāketa (DhA.i.385 ﬀ).
¹⁶ In the Saṃyuttanikāya (S.v.351), the king’s chamberlains, Isidatta and Purāṇa, speak of his harem. When he went riding in the park he took with him his favourite and lovely wives on elephants, one before and one behind. They were sweetly scented — “like caskets of scent” — and their hands were soft to the touch.
¹⁷ DhA.i.339 ﬀ, J.i.133 f, J.iv.144 ﬀ.
²⁹ DhA.iii.241 ﬀ; SNA. (580) says that Bāvarī was Mahākosala’s chaplain and Pasenadi studied under him. When Pasenadi came to the throne, Bāvarī declared his wish to leave the world. The king tried to prevent him but failed; he did, however, persuade Bāvarī to live in the royal park. Bāvarī, after staying there for some time, found life in a city uncongenial. The king thereupon detailed two of his ministers to establish a suitable hermitage for Bāvarī.
³⁸ The UdA. (104) explains Pasenadi as “paccantaṃ parasenaṃ jinātī ti = Pasenadi.” According to Tibetan sources he was so called because the whole country was illuminated at the time of his birth (Rockhill, p.16).
⁴² J.P.T.S. 1886, p.37.
Finding Footnote References
References in the notes are to the Pāḷi texts of the PTS. In the translations, these are usually printed in the headers near the spine, or in square brackets in the body of the text, thus it would be i 153 in the spine or  in the text. References to the Commentaries are usually suffixed with A for Aṭṭhakathā (DA, MA, SNA, etc.) but references to the Jātaka Commentary are given as J, not JA, which would normally be used, as that is reserved for the Journal Asiatic.