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1. Thūpārāma.– A monastery near the southern wall of Anurādhapura, erected by Devānampiyatissa. The spot was consecrated by the Buddha having sat there in meditation (Mhv.i.82) and also by former Buddhas doing likewise (Mhv.xv.86). The thūpa there was the first of its kind in Sri Lanka and enshrined the Buddha’s collar-bone. Miracles, said to have been ordained by the Buddha himself, attended its enshrinement (Mhv.xvii.30, 50). The monastery was built later than the thūpa, hence its name (Mhv.xvii.62). One of the eight saplings of the Bodhi-tree at Anurādhapura was planted in the grounds and exists to this day (Mhv.xix.61). The Cittasālā was to the east of the Thūpārāma, and on that site Saṅghamittā was cremated (Mhv.xx.52). It was the monks of Thūpārāma who helped Thūlatthana to become king (Mhv.xxxiii.17).

Lañjatissa levelled the ground between the Thūpārāma and the Mahā Thūpa (about four hundred yards away), made a stone mantling for the thūpa, and built a smaller thūpa to the east of it, near which he built the Lañjakāsana-hall (Mhv.xxxiii.23 f). Āmaṇḍagāmaṇī added an inner verandah to the uposatha-hall in the monastery (Mhv.xxxv.3), while Vasabha placed lamps round the thūpa and built a new uposatha-house (Mhv.xxxv.80, 87, 91). Bhātikatissa erected another assembly-hall, while Goṭhābhaya made certain restorations (Mhv.xxxvi.4, 106). The Saṅghapāla-pariveṇa probably formed part of the monastery (Mhv.xxxvi.114).

Jeṭṭhatissa removed from the Thūpārāma the stone image placed there by Devānampiyatissa and set it up in Pācīnatissapabbata (Mhv.xxxvi.128).

The renegade monk Saṅghamitta once threatened to destroy the Thūpārāma but was killed in the attempt (Mhv.xxxvii.27). Mahānāma provided a gold casing for the finial of the thūpa (Cv.xxxvii.207) and Dhātusena restored the thūpa (Mhv.xxxviii.70), while Aggabodhi II effected extensive repairs, almost rebuilding the whole structure (Mhv.xlii.51 ff). Dāṭhopatissa I did the monastery great damage, as did Kassapa II, though he afterwards made amends (Mhv.xliv.133, 138, 148). Dāṭhopatissa II (s.v. Hatthadāṭha) gave the village of Punnali to the Thūpārāma (Mhv.xlv.28), and Mānavamma built a pāsāda (Mhv.xlvii.66). Aggabodhi VII repaired the doors and transposed the pillars of the structure round the cetiya (Cv.xlviii.65). Mahinda II placed a casing of gold and silver plates in the cetiya (Cv.xlviii.140), while Dappula II covered the relic house (thūpaghara) with golden bricks (Cv.xlix.81); both plates and bricks were later plundered by the Paṇḍu king (Cv.l.35). The golden plates were restored by Udaya II (Cv.li.128), and Sena Iḷaṅga provided a building for the monks to the west of the Thūpārāma (Cv.lii.16). Rakkha Iḷaṅga did likewise (Cv.liii.11). Mahinda IV covered the cetiya with strips of gold and silver, provided a golden door for the vihāra and instituted a great festival (Cv.liv.42 f).

Vijayabāhu I, Parakkamabāhu I, and Vijayabāhu IV, successively, restored the buildings and effected necessary repairs (Cv.lx.56; lxxviii.107; lxxxviii.80). The road into Anurādhapura passed by the southern gate of the Thūpārāma, eastwards and then northwards (UdA.238; VibhA.449). From the Kadamba-nadī to the Thūpārāma the road lay through the gate of the Rājamātu-vihāra (DA.ii.572).

Behind the Thūpārāma was the Mahejjāvatthu. It is said (Sp.i.86) that, at the time of Devānampiyatissa, there was in the Thūpārāma a shrine dedicated to the three Buddhas previous to Gotama.

2. Thūpārāma.– The name of a building in Pulatthipura. The date of erection and name of the founder are unknown, but it probably existed before the time of Parakkamabāhu I (Cv.lx.56; Cv. Trs.i.220, n.1; ii.105, n.5).