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Aparagoyāna

One of the four great continents into which the earth is divided. It is to the west of Sineru and is seven thousand leagues (yojana) in extent. It is surrounded by five hundred islands (SnA.ii.443). According to the Aṅguttaranikāya (i.227; v.59), each world-system (cakkavāḷa) has an Aparagoyāna. It is inhabited by men (KhA.123), but they have no houses and sleep on the ground (ThagA.ii.187‑8). In the centre of the continent is a Kadamba tree, whose trunk is fifteen leagues in girth and whose trunk and arms are fifty leagues in length.

This tree stands for a whole world-cycle (DhsA.298; AA.i.264; Vm.206). When the sun rises in Jambudīpa, it is the middle watch of the night in Aparagoyāna; sunset in Aparagoyāna is midnight in Jambudīpa, and sunrise is noon in Jambudīpa, sunset in Pubbavideha and midnight in Uttarakuru (DA.iii.868). A Cakkavatti-king first conquers Pubbavideha in the east and Jambudīpa in the south, and then sets out to win Aparagoyāna in the west and Uttarakuru in the north (Mbv.73‑4; BuA.113). Thus King Mandhātu, having conquered Jambudīpa, journeys on with his retinue to Aparagoyāna and conquers it straight away (Dvy.215).

The yakkha Puṇṇaka, in his game of dice with Dhanañjaya,¹ staked a jewel, by gazing into which the continent of Aparagoyāna could be seen. So also in the necklace mentioned in the Hārapradāna Jātaka. (Mtu.ii.68).

In this context the name given is Goyāniya. So also in the Mahāvastu: Aparagodānika, °godāniya (ii.159, 378, etc.). In the Dulva it is called Aparagaudani (Rockhill, 84).

Some of the inhabitants came with Mandhātu from Aparagoyāna to Jambudīpa and settled down there. The country they colonised was called Aparanta. DA.ii.482; MA.i.484.

¹ J.vi.278, Vidhura Jātaka (No.546)

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